ANNEXES TO BE POSTED SHORTLY
ESMAP Technical Report 004/13
Blog by Christopher Neal: Bridge the Transmission Gap for Renewable Energy Scale-Up
Although the use of geothermal steam for electricity production began in the early 20th century, geothermal still only represents 0.3 percent of the world’s total power generation. As of 2011, about 11 GW of geothermal power capacity has been built around the world, most of it in the last three decades.
This primer is concerned with energy use and efficiency of network-based water supply and wastewater treatment in urban areas. It focuses on the supply side of the municipal water cycle, including the extraction, treatment, and distribution of water, and collection and treatment of wastewater—activities which are directly managed by water and wastewater utilities (WWUs).