In developing countries, renewable energy with storage is emerging into a commercially viable alternative to fossil-based generation. Among the energy storage options available, battery storage is becoming a feasible solution to increase system flexibility, due to its fast response, easy deployment and cost reduction trends.
The World Bank is supporting the sustainable scale up of investments in battery storage in developing countries and it also is convening an international partnership, the Energy Storage Partnership (ESP), to adapt and develop new energy storage solutions to the needs of developing countries. This tool has been made available with funding support from the Korean Green Growth Trust Fund (KGGTF) and technical support from the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) through the World Bank in context of the Energy Storage Partnership (ESP).
Optimally sizing the energy and power components of battery energy storage systems (BESS) is crucial to maximize the benefits of hybrid solar plus storage plants. Battery sizing is a complex multi-dimensional problem that requires key performance factors such as the energy and power requirements, the intended application (operating regime), cost of the different components, among others. Defining the energy application intended to be supported is an essential part of sizing the energy storage system as it determines the number of hours of storage needed. This tool covers two applications:
Solar PV energy output smoothing: the BESS is used to flatten the fluctuation of solar power output over a period of time, thus facilitating its integration in the grids. As such, the hybrid solar plus storage system can provide steady power output over a desired time window, usually a period of minutes to hours. Solar output smoothing is equivalent to providing reserves only to address the variability and uncertainty of the solar PV plant, providing the necessary time for other generating units to respond. This application involves dimensioning the battery for a given solar PV plant.
Solar PV energy output shifting to meet a given demand profile: the BESS is charged during RE generation hours and discharged to meet the profile defined by the user. Solar energy shifting guarantees a given output profile during a certain time duration, thus increasing the availability of round-the-clock power. This application involves dimensioning the solar PV and battery systems.
The objective of this tool is to provide a preliminary assessment of the energy storage sizing requirements (both in terms of energy and power), and the project cost of hybrid solar PV and energy storage systems, using energy storage for smoothing and shifting applications.
As such, this tool intends to inform early discussions around new greenfield solar PV and battery energy storage hybrid projects in developing countries. The outputs of this tool provide only a limited assessment of the sizes of these systems using by default twelve representative days, each of which reflecting the hourly solar average daily output recorded during the same month. The outputs from this tool should not be taken as substitutes of detailed pre-feasibility or feasibility studies for a hybrid solar PV and battery energy storage system using more detailed representations of these elements.
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